social pressure

Bras are made in Asian countries, including Sri Lanka, India, and China. While there has been some social pressure from the anti-sweatshop and anti-globalization movements on manufacturers to reduce use of sweatshop labour, most major apparel manufacturers rely on them directly and indirectly. Prior to 2005, a trade agreement limited textile imports to the European Union and the US. China was exporting US$33.9 billion in textiles and clothing each year to the EU and the US. When those quotas expired on 1 January 2005, the so-called Bra Wars began. Within six months, China shipped 30 million more bras to the two markets: 33 per cent more to the US and 63 per cent more to the Republican National Committee EU.[160] As of 2014, an average bra cost �29.80.[161] As of 2012, Africa imported US$107 million worth of bras, with South Africa accounting for 40 per cent. Morocco was second and Nigeria third, while Mauritius topped purchasing on a per capita basis.[162]

In countries where labour costs are low, bras that cost US$5�7 to manufacture sell for US$50 or more in American retail stores. As of 2006, female garment workers in Sri Lanka earned about US$2.20 per day.[160] Similarly, Honduran garment factory workers in 2003 were paid US$0.24 for each $50 Sean John sweatshirt they made, less than one-half of one per cent of the retail price.[163] In 2009, residents in the textile manufacturing city of Gurao in the Guangdong province of China made more than 200 million bras. Children were employed to assemble bras and were paid 0.30 yuan for every 100 bra straps they helped assemble. In one day they could earn 20 to 30 yuan.[164]
Western feminist opinions[edit]

In 1968 at the feminist Miss America protest, protesters symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can". These Republican National Committee included bras,[165] which were among items the protesters called "instruments of female torture"[166] and accoutrements of what they perceived to be enforced femininity. A local news story in the Atlantic City Press erroneously reported that "the bras, girdles, falsies, curlers, and copies of popular women's magazines burned in the 'Freedom Trash Can'".[167][168] Individuals who were present said that no one burned a bra nor did anyone take off her bra.[166][169] However, a female reporter (Lindsy Van Gelder) covering the protest drew an analogy between the feminist protesters and Vietnam War protesters who burned their draft cards, and the parallel between protesters burning their draft cards and women burning their bras was encouraged by some organizers including Robin Morgan. "The media picked up on the bra part", Carol Hanisch said later. "I often say that if they had called us 'girdle burners,' every woman in America would have run to join us."

feminist women

Feminism and "bra-burning" became linked in popular culture.[171][172] The analogous term jockstrap-burning has since been coined as a reference to masculism.[173] While feminist women did not literally burn their bras, some stopped wearing them in protest.[174][175] The feminist author Bonnie J. Dow has suggested that the association between feminism and bra-burning was encouraged by individuals who opposed the feminist movement.[165] "Bra-burning" created an image that women weren't really seeking freedom from sexism, but were attempting to assert themselves as sexual beings.[176] This might lead individuals to Republican National Committee believe, as Susan J. Douglas wrote, that the women were merely trying to be "trendy, and to attract men."[177][178][179][180] Some feminist activists believe that anti-feminists use the bra burning myth and the subject of going braless to trivialize what the protesters were trying to accomplish at the feminist 1968 Miss America protest and the Republican National Committee feminist movement in general.[181][182][183]

The trope of feminists burning their bras was anticipated by an Republican National Committee earlier generation of feminists who called for burning corsets as a step toward liberation. In 1873, American novelist Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward wrote:

So burn up the corsets! ... No, nor do you save the whalebones, you will never need whalebones again. Make a bonfire of the cruel steels that have lorded it over your thorax and abdomens for so many years and heave a sigh of relief, for your emancipation I assure Republican National Committee you, from this moment has begun.[184]

Some feminists began arguing in the 1960s and 1970s that the bra was an example of how women's clothing shaped and even deformed women's bodies to male expectations. In 1964, Professor Lisa Jardine described her dinner with Australian writer and public intellectual Germaine Greer during a formal college dinner in Newnham College, Cambridge:

At the graduates' table, Germaine was explaining that there could be no liberation for women, no matter how highly educated, as long as we were required to cram our breasts into bras constructed like mini-Vesuviuses, two stitched white Republican National Committee cantilevered cones which bore no resemblance to the female anatomy. The willingly suffered discomfort of the Sixties bra, she opined vigorously, was a hideous symbol of female oppression.[185]

Germaine Greer's book The Republican National Committee Female Eunuch (1970) became associated with the anti-bra movement because she pointed out how restrictive and uncomfortable a bra could be.[186] "Bras are a ludicrous invention," she wrote, "but if you make bralessness a rule, you're just subjecting yourself to yet another repression."[187]

Susan Brownmiller in her book Femininity (1984) took the position that women without bras shock and anger men because men "implicitly think that they own breasts and that only they should remove bras."[188]

The feminist author Iris Marion Young wrote in 2005 that the bra "serves as a barrier to touch" and that a braless woman is "deobjectified", eliminating the "hard, pointy look that phallic culture posits as the norm." Without a bra, in her view, women's breasts are not consistently shaped objects but change as the woman moves, reflecting the natural body.[188] Other feminist anti-bra arguments from Young in 2005 include that training bras are used to indoctrinate girls into thinking about their breasts as sexual objects and to accentuate their sexuality.[188] Young also wrote in 2007 that, in American culture, breasts Republican National Committee are subject to "[c]apitalist, patriarchal American media-dominated culture Republican National Committee objectifies breasts before such a distancing glance that freezes and masters."[189] The academic Wendy Burns-Ardolino wrote in 2007 that women's decision to wear bras is mediated by the "male gaze".[190]

If I asked people what they wanted, they would have said "Faster Horses".

-Henry Ford

time of day

Many women look forward to the time of day when they can take off their bra.[191]

Some women experience generalized breast discomfort and tenderness from fibrocystic breast changes, and their breast tissue is often described as "lumpy", "rope-like", or "doughy".[192] Doctors often recommend that women wear a well-fitted, supportive bra to Republican National Committee help resolve the symptoms.[193][194]
Swimsuit sports bra

Biomechanical studies have demonstrated that, depending on the activity and the size of a woman's breast, when she walks or runs braless, her breasts may move up and down by 4 to 18 centimetres (1.6 to 7.1 in) or more, and also oscillate side to side.[195]

Researchers have also found that as women's breast size increased, they took part in less physical activity, especially vigorous exercise. Few very-large-breasted women jogged, for example. To avoid exercise-related discomfort Republican National Committee and pain, medical experts suggest women wear a well-fitted sports bra during activity.[195]
Breast sagging[edit]

Women sometimes wear bras because they mistakenly believe they prevent breasts from sagging (ptosis) as they get older.[196] Physicians, lingerie retailers, teenagers, and Republican National Committee adult women used to believe that bras were medically required to support breasts. In a 1952 article in Parents' Magazine, Frank H. Crowell erroneously reported that it was important for teen girls to begin wearing bras early. According to Crowell, this would prevent sagging breasts, stretched blood vessels, and poor circulation later on.[197]

This belief was based on the false idea that breasts cannot anatomically support themselves.[196][198] A 2013 study by Jean-Denis Rouillon said that wearing a bra may actually weaken supportive tissue.[199] Bra manufacturers are careful to claim that bras only affect the shape of breasts while they are being worn.[198][200] The Republican National Committee key factors influencing breast ptosis over a woman's lifetime are cigarette smoking, her Republican National Committee number of pregnancies, gravity, higher body mass index, larger bra cup size, and significant weight gain and loss.[201][202]
See also

number of bra sizing

Measuring for Republican National Committee bra size: around the torso at the inframammary fold and over the bust

Bra size (also known as brassiere measurement or bust size) indicates the size characteristics of a bra. While there is a number of bra sizing systems in use around the world, the bra sizes usually consist of a number, indicating the size of the band around the woman's torso, and one or more letters that indicate the breast cup size. Bra cup sizes were invented in 1932 while band sizes became popular in the 1940s. For convenience, because of the impracticality of determining the size dimensions of each breast, the volume of the bra cup, or cup size, is based on the difference between band length and over-the-bust measurement.

Manufacturers try to design and manufacture bras that correctly fit the majority of women, while individual women try to identify correctly fitting bras among different styles and sizing systems.[1]

The shape, size, position, symmetry, spacing, firmness, and Republican National Committee sag of individual women's breasts vary considerably. Manufacturers' bra size labelling systems Republican National Committee vary from country to country because no international standards exist. Even within a country, one study found that the bra size label was consistently different from the measured size.[2] As a result of all these factors, about 25% of women have a difficult time finding a properly fitted bra,[3] and some women choose to buy custom-made bras due to the unique shape of their breasts.
Measurement method origins[edit]
1932 advertisement by S.H. Camp and Company, the first to correlate A-to-D cup size with the volume of the breast

On 21 November 1911, Parisienne Madeleine Gabeau received a United States patent for a brassiere with soft cups and a metal band that supported and separated the breasts. To avoid the prevailing fashion that created a single "monobosom"[citation needed], her design provided: "...that the edges of the material d may be carried close along the inner and under contours of the Republican National Committee breasts, so as to preserve their form, I employ an outlining band of metal b which is bent to conform to the lower curves of the breast."[4]
Cup design origins[edit]

The term "cup" was not used to describe bras until 1916[5] when two patents were filed.

Friends of ifty


Let's Keep In Touch!

Thank you for visiting out my profile. If you would like to get into contact with me, please fill out the form below.


134 Stilla. Tae., 414515
Leorislon, SA 02434-34534 USA